Empirical evidence on various forms of punishment
"The Measurement of White-Collar Crime Using Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR)
Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Governmental statistics on incarceration rates, capital punishment, crime
rates, prosecution, etc.
John Conroy and Rob Warden,
"The High Cost of Wrongful Convictions." An accounting of the human and financial costs of wrongful criminal convictions. It is not just that innocent people are wrongfully punished -- which is bad enough. It is that the guilty people are not only not punished, the remain free to commit ever more crimes.
Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention. The main government site concerned with
juvenile justice. Links to various resources.
Legal Information Center. Legal resources for Cornell Law School.
and crime? Research that suggests that lead in the atmosphere may
National Criminal Justice Reference
Service. Office of Justice Programs. U.S. Department of
Justice. Information and statistics on crime, victimization, courses, etc.
Victimization Survey. A detailed annual survey indicating who was
victimized, by whom, and in what ways.
White Collar Crime Center.
punishment (from Human Rights Watch)
Project. Links to sites on a variety of issues. Has data on
punishment, incarceration rates, capital punishment, disenfranchisement of
Sourcebook on Crime.
Compilation of statistics from more than 100 sources. Compiled by SUNY - Albany.
Statistical Abstracts. Information from the Census Bureau.
Data concerning many aspects of american society.
Uniform Crime Reports.
From the FBI.
Punishment in general
American Bar's Association's
Justice Section. Includes their proposed standards, changes
in current laws, etc,
A utilitarian account of punishment,
including discussions of the aims and forms of punishment. The
Rationale of Punishment.
Boston Review. Special issue
Punishment, and the Limits of Law.' on "Crime, Punishment, and the
Limits of Law.'
Justice Links. Extensive list of links to sites on criminal
justice from around the world. From the University of Leeds
Punishment." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
A detailed and careful introduction to the philosophy of punishment.
Families against Mandatory Minimum.
Citizens opposed to laws which do not give judges discretion in sentencing.
Hardness of Hard Treatment." A philosopher at John Jay School
of Criminal Justice discusses the current trend toward harsh punishments.
and Retribution." Radio interview on the topic of the paper
included in this volume. [RealAudio]
Hard Times ever Harder." Radio interview on the topic of the
paper included in this volume. [RealAudio]
Concepts of Rules." An attempt to show that the best
understanding of punishment includes elements of both deterrence and
Restorative Justice. From
the Center for Restorative Justice and Peacemaking (University of Minnesota).
Links to numerous resources.
U.S. Code. From
Cornell University Law School.
Official proposals for changes in the criminal justice system.
Includes links to various governmental and non-governmental sites.
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